3 cups all-purpose flour
1 cup cake flour
¼ cup granulated sugar
1½ teaspoons baking soda
1½ teaspoons cream of tartar
1 teaspoon salt
4 Tablespoons unsalted butter, softened
1¼ cups buttermilk
1 egg, lightly beaten
1 cup raisins
1 Tablespoon caraway seeds (optional)
2 Tablespoons butter, melted (for brushing)
1. Preheat oven to 400 degrees F and position rack in upper-middle position. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper or a silicone baking mat (or lightly grease).
2. In a large bowl, whisk together the flours, sugar, baking soda, cream of tartar, and salt. Work the softened butter into the dry ingredients using a pastry blender or a fork or your hands until the flour mixture resembles coarse crumbs.
3. Add the buttermilk, egg, raisins and caraway seeds and stir with a fork just until the dough begins to come together. Turn the dough out onto a floured work surface and knead gently just until the dough is cohesive. It should be bumpy - overworking it will cause the resulting scones to be tough instead of tender and flaky.
4. Divide the dough evenly into 8 pieces and pat each into a round shape. Using a sharp knife, cut a cross shape into the top of each scone. Bake for 15 to 20 minutes, or until the internal temperature reaches 170 degrees F. The scones should be golden brown and a thin knife or skewer should come out clean. Remove from the oven and immediately brush with the melted butter. Allow to cool to room temperature.