Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Line an 8-inch square baking pan with foil, allowing excess to hand over the pan edges. Grease foil; set aside.
Process the cream cheese, ¼ cup granulated sugar, egg yolk, and ¾ teaspoon vanilla extract in a food processor until smooth; set aside.
Whisk together the flour, baking powder, and salt in a small bowl; set aside. Microwave the butter and chocolate in a large bowl, stirring occasionally, until smooth, about 1 minute. Whisk in ¼ cup of the raspberry jam and cool slightly. Add the remaining 1¼ cups sugar, the eggs, and remaining 1½ teaspoons vanilla to the chocolate mixture, stirring until combined. Add the flour mixture and stir until incorporated.
Microwave the remaining ¼ cup raspberry jam until warm, about 30 seconds; stir until smooth. Scrape half of the brownie batter into the prepared pan. Dollop the cream cheese filling over the batter and spread into and even layer. Dollop the warm jam evenly over the filling and swirl to partially combine. Spread the remaining brownie batter evenly over the filling. Bake until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out with a few crumbs attached, 50 to 60 minutes. Cool completely, about 2 hours. Using the foil overhang, life the brownies from the pan and cut into squares. Store leftovers in an airtight container in the refrigerator.